Written by: Denton Vacuum, LLC
Summary: E-beam technology possesses all the tools and characteristics that a quality deposition method requires.
This guide will break down all the essentials that you need to know to understand how e-beam evaporation works and how it’s applied in today’s industries.
E-beam evaporation is a physical vapor deposition technique that utilizes a centralized electron beam generated from a filament that contains numerous electric and magnetic fields. The ebeam itself is an intense.
Once it strikes a source material, it will then vaporize it within a specially designed vacuum chamber. Note that a vacuum environment is crucial to the entire process. The source material that is placed inside will then be heated through an energy transfer process. At this point, it will then travel throughout the vacuum chamber and then coated on the substrate above the evaporating material. Much of the working distances are 300mm to 1 meter.
Since e-beam technology has been utilized in a variety of industries, you can only imagine the flexibility and versatility that this process has. PVD thermal evaporation is one of the most widely used technologies out there for deposition processes. Anything from the microchip industry to solar panels, e-beam evaporation can perform it all and do it at temperatures that some technologies would deem too unstable. One the most beneficial aspects of utilizing e-beam technology over others is that it creates a vortex of electron beams that strike the target at high speeds. This creates such a force that the substrate always obtains a high adhesion rate and high quality surface characteristics, as opposed to other methods.
One of the biggest challenges that developing nations are expected to face in the coming decades, as population explodes to more than 8 billion around the world by 2035. In 2007, China became the top CO2 emitter, over taking the US with India not far behind. The demand for fossil fuels isn’t sustainable, so those looking forward are beginning to brainstorm new methods to meet this challenge.
Creating a Sustainable System
The biggest challenge is creating a system that is both sustainable, and eco-friendly. People already suffer the effects of coal-burning plants and exposure, so minimizing those effects while expanding the power grid is crucial.
Renewable energy has become a viable method to help grow the power grid, but solar and wind can’t sustain power for all areas around the globe. It would take massive wind and solar farms that would be slow and costly to build.
That’s one reason why experts like Dev Randhawa are quick to point out the US is one of many countries engaging in hybrid energy strategies. Randhawa estimates that as much as 20% of the US energy grid is made up of nuclear power, with renewable and fossil fuels helping to fill in some of the other blanks.
This unified strategy of energy is both sustainable and cleaner than an over reliance on either renewable or fossil fuels.
It’s not clear what the future of our cars or home life might look like, but it is clear that nuclear is an expanding part of that future. Nuclear can meet the demands of a power grid taxed every day at rush hour, when people arrive home to turn on their televisions and computers.
Sputtering can be enhanced in a variety of ways.
With so many different deposition methods available today, the market has become somewhat saturated. Furthermore, because of the rapid advancement in technology, there are new ways to optimize material deposition, therefore expanding the industry in even more ways. Now, one of the most common deposition processes comes from what is known as sputtering. A sputter deposition system is efficient, quick, and is know for its high quality output. Here is a breakdown on how one can enhance the production of this process.
There are numerous ways that you can enhance the process of sputtering. One of the most common ways to do this is to use what is known as a magnetron sputtering system or an ion beam sputter deposition. The main difference between this and a basic sputtering system is that a magnetic field is being utilized near the target area. This field causes the electrons to travel and spiral along flu lines near the target rather than it being attracted towards the substrate. One of the advantages of this is that the plasma is “stuck” to an area near the target, without causing any damage to the thin film that is being formed. Remember, electrons will travel for a longer distance which increases the possibility of further ionizing Argon atoms. This tends to create a stable plasma with a high density of ions. More ions means that there is going to be more ejected atoms from the target, which in turn will increase the efficiency of the entire sputtering process.
Denton Vacuum, LLC can help you with all your vacuum metalizing needs. For more information, visit them online today.
In the coming years, oligonucleotides will play a large role in the therapeutics community.
Oligonucleotides are now an actively investigated therapeutic applicant in clinical trials. Researchers have been expressing cautious optimism on the positive effects that these oligos have on minimizing or curing genetically-deformed diseases.
Oligos and their chemically modified clones are being routinely researched to control the expression of relevant genes and dedicate them to therapeutic purposes. There has been optimistic belief that oligonucleotide therapy will succeed in the coming years as a medical agent for mutated diseases – the most common being cancer.
The fundamental events of the involving biological pathways have been generally understood to the point where chemical modifications can now be implemented in research strategies – such as the potency of therapeutic trials for oligonucleotides.
For oligonucleotide-based therapies, there are several classes of oligonucleotides that are used to control gene expression. Researchers are specifically emphasizing antisense oligos due to their modification strategies.
The biological pathways of oligonucleotides are a foundation for driving innovative strategies for optimal therapy. By combining the current advances, there can be a better understanding of the chemical “know-how’s”, which are essentially one of the keys to advancement within this field.
Oligonucleotide therapeutics does have certain impediments that include: low efficiency, poor extra- and intracellular stability, and immunostimulation. However, the recent development of oligonucleotide chemical modifications allows there to be less limiting features of both RNA and DNA polymers. These analogs allow for flexibility, which allows specific alterations to be made if necessary – in regards to the inherent properties of oligonucleotides that affect its’ biological potency.
The Midland Certified Reagent Company is an established supplier of oligonucleotides. Visit them online to order a modified oligo for your research purposes today.
Written by: The Midland Certified Reagent Company
Oligonucleotides have been researched for years and are becoming prevalent in today’s society.
The role of oligonucleotides in therapy has been increasing tenfold over the past ten years. This is due to the numerous clinical trials that have been occurring. While it may seem that there is still a good amount of time before an actual treatment is in circulation, there have been many beneficial developments that have come out of these trials.
More than a hundred types of oligonucleotides are candidates to be tested in a clinical setting, but only half of them are actually approved. Decades of research have brought the oligo synthesis process to this setting. Primarily, cancers are the leading candidate for oligos because of their ability to degenerate and kill off the malignant cells. Other disease forms that are being tested include: Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, transthyretin amyloidosis, and corneal vascularisation.
Through both DNA and RNA synthesis, oligonucleotides have been altered in a laboratory setting to improve the rate at which malignant cells are being fought at. While cancer is known to spread at a rapid pace, scientists continue to develop new methods that reduce the number of limitations that prevent the oligo therapy from completely staving off infection.
RNA and DNA synthesis both play a role in antisense therapy. Through synthesis, the nucleic acid will bind to the messenger RNA and essentially deactivate the infected gene. Not only is this beneficial for research purposes, but there is a potential for this therapeutic treatment to become a major positive factor in today’s society. The various diseases that continue to be a major killer will only become worse until successful medical treatments are uncovered. This step is the first among the many on this road to finding a cure.
Written by: The Midland Certified Reagent Company
Oligos have come a long way in the research field.
In laboratories all over the world, oligonucleotides are being used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Prior to the dominance of oligos in the therapeutic world, they were primarily used as an aide to laboratory research. They were manufactured on a smaller scale because of their designated laboratory purpose. Now, they are in high demand due to their ability to assist in human diagnostics and drug resistance developments.
The increased production of both oligo and modified oligo nucleotides have led to more support in genetic methods such as bead-based assays, and isothermal amplification.
For studies of protein, researchers can figure out new, comprehensive strategies that will benefit both testing and researching phases. An advantage that this gives scientists is that they can carve a path ahead in developing new methods for the rest of the world to utilize.
Specific probes, like dual-labeled probes, can be used to assist in drug susceptibility and resistance issues in suffering countries like Africa. The hope is that their oligos will provide insight into creating a more resistant drug that will affect the human body in ways that will enhance and promote life.
As oligos continue to become a more mainstream and significant product in society, companies will heed the demands of laboratories and produce higher-grade oligos. This rapid movement is only the beginning of a positive trend towards revolutionary discoveries. New technologies will continue to be uncovered as genetic coding and oligo design continue to be relied upon when it comes time to make this leap.
Written by: Denton Vacuum, LLC
Summary: Learn how transparent conducting films are made.
Have you ever wondered how your LCD screen computer monitor works? One of the major components to those screens is what is called “transparent conducting film”, which power many important devices in our everyday lives. These films go through a process much like vacuum metallization to apply the base layer of conductive materials.
The process uses a combination of both organic and inorganic materials in photovoltaic mechanisms. Inorganic layers consist of transparent conducting oxide, which usually comes in the form of indium tin oxide. Organic films are also possible, but they require the use of carbon nanotube networks made of graphene. A magnetron sputtering system bonds the materials to the film, which allows light to pass through.
How TCFs Work
TCFs pass light through materials, and have applications in the photovoltaic realm as well. These films allow wavelengths of a certain nanometer to pass through. If the spectrum falls outside of that nanometer range, then the light is blocked. This is called the “bandgap” and it’s an essential function in screens. However, photovoltaic cells must absorb as much light as possible.
The metal oxides necessary for this whole process to work have to be grown on a glass substrate. Apart from being the ideal surface for the materials to grow on, the glass has an added benefit. It blocks certain wavelengths by default, converting that light to heat instead.
In addition to magnetron sputtering, PVD coating equipment can also deposit materials on the substrate. However, magnetron sputtering proves far more economical when used in AZO thin film deposition.
Summary: Get the perfect chrome finish on tailpipes and engines with this technique.
Have you ever wondered how automakers are able to get such a perfect chrome finish on tailpipes and engine internals? Using a sputter coater enables manufacturers to get a shiny, even finish on parts. The end result has fewer wasted materials, and the product looks amazing every time. This fascinating process has been in use since the 1980s, and has brought many benefits to auto manufacturers.
One usage for PVD coating is known as “metallization,” which changes the property of one substance for those of another. In the case of plastic to metal, durability is significantly improved. Why use plastic in the first place? Wouldn’t it make more sense to have a durable metal part?
Consider high-performance engines. The costs to maintain those engines, should those heavy metal parts break down, would put a huge burden on consumers. It’s cost-effective on both ends to use vacuum metallization to change the properties of plastic. Manufacturers spend less in materials, and waste less too, while consumers benefit from lower repair costs.
There is no denying that chrome tailpipes look amazing. That even coating wouldn’t be possible without some kind of uniform coating system, which requires precise temperatures and a vacuum-sealed chamber to function. To understand the difference, we need to look at the tailpipe at a molecular level.
The vacuum sealed chamber, and rotating tailpipe, allow for a few things to occur. First, the metal molecules, which had previously been converted to gas, bounce around the chamber and come to rest at the substrate (the tailpipe). Because the tailpipe is rotated evenly, the molecules smash onto the surface of the pipe uniformly. No defects, and perfect shine.
Bio: For more than 50 years, the team at Denton Vacuum, LLC has produced high-quality sputter deposition systems for use in a wide range of industrial manufacturing applications.
Summary: Using binary, we may be able to encode information on DNA.
Imagine a future where our information is stored inside of us. Sounds very science fiction like, but researchers at Harvard are making breakthroughs in that very field. Utilizing oligos, the team is using DNA as a binary storage device that they can write code to. The team can encode anything, using binary as a method of communication.
During oligo synthesis, synthetic strands are used like a printer. The “ink” in this case are the TG AC bases. If we take TG to mean “1” and AC to mean “0” we have the basis for binary communication. The sequence is encoded in binary. When the DNA strand is re-sequenced, the researchers are able to detect the binary code and store a whopping 700 terabytes of information for every gram of DNA.
The question is why anyone would think to store information inside of our DNA anyway.
Pros to DNA Storage
DNA storage has been on people’s minds for some time. You can store a surprisingly large amount of information in a relatively small space, and it’s durable too. DNA can survive for thousands of years in a box sitting in someone’s shed or in a warehouse.
The trouble has always been our ability, or lack thereof, to read DNA. The human genome consists of 3-billion base pairs, which we can only now begin to read for the first time. And it still takes hours of time.
This technology has a long way to go, but the future of DNA storage looks very bright.
Bio: The Midland Certified Reagent Company manufactures oligos, RNA polymers and synthetic materials used in medical research and experimentation. To order synthetic DNA, RNA or phosphorothioates, contact The Midland Certified Reagent Company.
Genetic diseases can be one of the most destructive to humans, and they can be difficult to fight. Making adjustments to the human genome is not a simple procedure, there are consequences for our actions. That’s why every medication used in human genetic immunization has to be thoroughly tested before it is deployed to market. Even testing must be cautious, but there are ways to test the effects on humans without resorting to human testing.
Utilizing Anti-Sense Therapy
Glioma affects the central nervous system, and is responsible for 80% of all malignant brain tumors. That’s a pretty significant chunk of cancer deaths, and one potential cause is genetics. Medical scientists have been exploring antisense drugs that target the human growth hormones, making necessary adjustments to the DNA, that may be a potential cure for this deadly form of cancer.
How it Works
Genes are a bit like computers in the sense that they follow specific instructions. Sometimes, just like computers, those instructions are bad and create a bug.
Antisense therapy relies on synthetic DNA or RNA that bonds with messenger RNA, or mRNA, to alter a particular gene and “debug” the problem. Although the process isn’t like staring at code at all. The genes are deactivated, or the mRNA could be told to bind with a splicing site. That would also alter its programming.
The virus known as AIDS is widely known, and well understood, but no clear cure exists. As we learn more about AIDS and its effects we have begun exploring solutions utilizing T-Cells. Unfortunately, this practice is also controversial in some countries and so a cure has not yet been realized. Still, early evidence proves promising.