Industrial and Manufacturing
Written by: Denton Vacuum, LLC
Summary: E-beam technology possesses all the tools and characteristics that a quality deposition method requires.
This guide will break down all the essentials that you need to know to understand how e-beam evaporation works and how it’s applied in today’s industries.
E-beam evaporation is a physical vapor deposition technique that utilizes a centralized electron beam generated from a filament that contains numerous electric and magnetic fields. The ebeam itself is an intense.
Once it strikes a source material, it will then vaporize it within a specially designed vacuum chamber. Note that a vacuum environment is crucial to the entire process. The source material that is placed inside will then be heated through an energy transfer process. At this point, it will then travel throughout the vacuum chamber and then coated on the substrate above the evaporating material. Much of the working distances are 300mm to 1 meter.
Since e-beam technology has been utilized in a variety of industries, you can only imagine the flexibility and versatility that this process has. PVD thermal evaporation is one of the most widely used technologies out there for deposition processes. Anything from the microchip industry to solar panels, e-beam evaporation can perform it all and do it at temperatures that some technologies would deem too unstable. One the most beneficial aspects of utilizing e-beam technology over others is that it creates a vortex of electron beams that strike the target at high speeds. This creates such a force that the substrate always obtains a high adhesion rate and high quality surface characteristics, as opposed to other methods.
Ground power units are vital in supplying parked airplanes enough power to maintain electrical function.
If you’ve ever wondered what type of power an aircraft uses when it’s docked at the airport stand, then this article will help provide you with the necessary information to better understand how these planes receive the electrical current needed to function. Now, normally, the aircraft will generate power on its own. But, when the aircraft is parked with the engine switched off, the power provided by the airport will be needed in order to maintain electrical functions. The connected power ranges but is usually 115 volts at 400Hz and is called ground power.
A fixed ground power unit is the supplier of 400 Hz power that utilizes a permanently installed fixture for use on a parked aircraft. The number of ground power units depend on the aircraft size. The larger the plane, the more units will be needed due to the high demand of electrical current.
The Conversion Process
The conversion process of the mains power to 400 Hz power is usually done in a centralized location or by frequency converters. Note that smaller airfields use a portable power pack rather than a fixed unit due to the lack of a centralized system. Now, when a centralized system supplies power, it’s usually a large quantity. The power is converted at a central location and then 400 Hz is then distributed to the aircraft. This process is crucial to the healthy functionalities of a power supply system. In point of use, the main power is taken close to the aircraft, and the conversion process is carried at the point of use.
Start Pac can help you find the perfect portable battery pack for your specific needs. For more information, visit them online today.
Don’t make shopping for portable power a hassle, research before you buy.
Portable power supplies can be found online or in-store at one of the many power supply manufacturers around the country. But, how do you narrow these stores down to find the one that will be the right fit for you? There are many factors that you must consider. Here are some tips that will get you the most out of your money.
Browse their Inventory
If you want to buy from the best, you have to be sure that they are supplying the best. Manufacturers often stock some of the most popular brands, while others provide generic units – and even fake rip-offs too. If you want to find a ground power unit for an aircraft, be sure that you check multiple stores. This isn’t only for price reasons, but to see whether or not they are legitimate.
Contact their Customer Service
If you really want to get a good idea on what type of products they are selling, try giving them a phone call. Their representatives should be able to provide you with all the details of the portable power pack that you are looking for, along with voltage rates, compatibility purposes, and more. Portable power doesn’t come at a cheap cost, so it’s crucial that you obtain all of the important details before you commit to a certain store.
This should be a no-brainer for everyone. But, if you find a certain company that you prefer over another, but their prices are still higher, try and see whether or not they are willing to price match. You’d be surprised at the amount of “yes’s” you’ll receive.
Start Pac provides the finest lithium batteries on the market, all at the most competitive rates. Visit them online today.
Summary: Learn more about how beacon probes help scientists get closer to a cure for cancer.
A commonly used cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize tumor cells is known as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This involves a type of probe known as a molecular beacon probe, and is able to hone in on the location of tumor cells.
This method is non-radioactive and involves labeling molecular markers in order to more clearly detect hybridization. Medical techs seeking cancerous tumor cells look for specific complementary sequences of nucleic acids.
A typical synthetic beacon probe is long and thin, shaped like a hairpin. It is usually no more than 25 oligos long. Fifteen of the 25 nucleotides in a probe complement the desired target DNA or RNA, and the termini of the probe complement each other.
Biomedical researchers in the 1980s made the groundbreaking discovery that fluorescence microscopy can be used to detect a fluorescent probe binding to a specific chromosome.
When probes have a fluorescent label, the light emitted during the process of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is visible in real time, ensuring that medical techs can very quickly locate tumor cells and track their metastasis.
While FISH is also occasionally used to identify species, its application in predictive and preventative medicine is very significant. Unusual temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression signify that cells and tissues are being invaded by a cancerous tumor, and FISH makes it easier for medical techs to find the tumor before it can metastasize.
Bio: The Midland Certified Reagent Company is a leader in the manufacture of polynucleotides for research purposes.
Written by: Denton Vacuum, LLC
Summary: Learn how transparent conducting films are made.
Have you ever wondered how your LCD screen computer monitor works? One of the major components to those screens is what is called “transparent conducting film”, which power many important devices in our everyday lives. These films go through a process much like vacuum metallization to apply the base layer of conductive materials.
The process uses a combination of both organic and inorganic materials in photovoltaic mechanisms. Inorganic layers consist of transparent conducting oxide, which usually comes in the form of indium tin oxide. Organic films are also possible, but they require the use of carbon nanotube networks made of graphene. A magnetron sputtering system bonds the materials to the film, which allows light to pass through.
How TCFs Work
TCFs pass light through materials, and have applications in the photovoltaic realm as well. These films allow wavelengths of a certain nanometer to pass through. If the spectrum falls outside of that nanometer range, then the light is blocked. This is called the “bandgap” and it’s an essential function in screens. However, photovoltaic cells must absorb as much light as possible.
The metal oxides necessary for this whole process to work have to be grown on a glass substrate. Apart from being the ideal surface for the materials to grow on, the glass has an added benefit. It blocks certain wavelengths by default, converting that light to heat instead.
In addition to magnetron sputtering, PVD coating equipment can also deposit materials on the substrate. However, magnetron sputtering proves far more economical when used in AZO thin film deposition.
Summary: Using binary, we may be able to encode information on DNA.
Imagine a future where our information is stored inside of us. Sounds very science fiction like, but researchers at Harvard are making breakthroughs in that very field. Utilizing oligos, the team is using DNA as a binary storage device that they can write code to. The team can encode anything, using binary as a method of communication.
During oligo synthesis, synthetic strands are used like a printer. The “ink” in this case are the TG AC bases. If we take TG to mean “1” and AC to mean “0” we have the basis for binary communication. The sequence is encoded in binary. When the DNA strand is re-sequenced, the researchers are able to detect the binary code and store a whopping 700 terabytes of information for every gram of DNA.
The question is why anyone would think to store information inside of our DNA anyway.
Pros to DNA Storage
DNA storage has been on people’s minds for some time. You can store a surprisingly large amount of information in a relatively small space, and it’s durable too. DNA can survive for thousands of years in a box sitting in someone’s shed or in a warehouse.
The trouble has always been our ability, or lack thereof, to read DNA. The human genome consists of 3-billion base pairs, which we can only now begin to read for the first time. And it still takes hours of time.
This technology has a long way to go, but the future of DNA storage looks very bright.
Bio: The Midland Certified Reagent Company manufactures oligos, RNA polymers and synthetic materials used in medical research and experimentation. To order synthetic DNA, RNA or phosphorothioates, contact The Midland Certified Reagent Company.
Genetic diseases can be one of the most destructive to humans, and they can be difficult to fight. Making adjustments to the human genome is not a simple procedure, there are consequences for our actions. That’s why every medication used in human genetic immunization has to be thoroughly tested before it is deployed to market. Even testing must be cautious, but there are ways to test the effects on humans without resorting to human testing.
Utilizing Anti-Sense Therapy
Glioma affects the central nervous system, and is responsible for 80% of all malignant brain tumors. That’s a pretty significant chunk of cancer deaths, and one potential cause is genetics. Medical scientists have been exploring antisense drugs that target the human growth hormones, making necessary adjustments to the DNA, that may be a potential cure for this deadly form of cancer.
How it Works
Genes are a bit like computers in the sense that they follow specific instructions. Sometimes, just like computers, those instructions are bad and create a bug.
Antisense therapy relies on synthetic DNA or RNA that bonds with messenger RNA, or mRNA, to alter a particular gene and “debug” the problem. Although the process isn’t like staring at code at all. The genes are deactivated, or the mRNA could be told to bind with a splicing site. That would also alter its programming.
The virus known as AIDS is widely known, and well understood, but no clear cure exists. As we learn more about AIDS and its effects we have begun exploring solutions utilizing T-Cells. Unfortunately, this practice is also controversial in some countries and so a cure has not yet been realized. Still, early evidence proves promising.
Written by: Denton Vacuum, LLC
Certain manufacturing techniques are shaping the modern world, and the future to come. It would not be possible to produce the kind of technology we have today, at the scale in which we use it, without some kind of method to reduce waste and improve conditions for production. Sputter deposition, for instance, allows us a level of precision down to mere microns in thickness. This allows us to create powerful semiconductors at an extremely small scale, powering ever smaller devices used in a host of applications.
Vacuum coating systems have had a major impact on every major sector in American and worldwide manufacturing. Here are a few of those practical applications.
Anti-glare coating is not a simple spray, or else it would be washed or rubbed away as the user cleans his glasses. Instead, the lens is placed into a vacuum sealed chamber where anti-glare chemicals can evenly coat its surface. The transition is so seamless that the user doesn’t even notice the coating.
Catheters are just one of many internal medical devices that benefit from acqueous coatings. These chemicals make the surface of the instrument pliable within the user’s body, so she can comfortably wear a device without fear of irritating her skin or internal organs.
Anti-microbial coatings further stop infection and improve patient recovery times. These coatings are applied to all manner of instruments, and they kill of infections that find their way into someone’s body through healing wounds.
Vacuum metalizing is used heavily in the aerospace industry, and in the auto industry to a certain extent. Plastic has a higher availability than stronger metals, and it’s not always feasible to manufacture a part made entirely of metals. Instead, the plastic is used as a base for a metallic coating. This strengthens the plastic with the properties of the metal and reduces the costs to manufacture all sorts of parts.
Vacuum coating systems are primarily used in situations where controlling temperature is imperative. This is one reason why it’s so useful in metallization, where the intense heat needed to turn the metal into gas would completely destroy any plastic parts to be coated. Instead, the chamber is cooled to a specific temperature.
These systems also allow for extreme precision in the coating of an object. There are no physical defects visible, and layers of chemicals are so thin that the substrate remains virtually unchanged.
Astronomy, the study of the stars and planets, is fueled almost entirely by our ability to see deep into space. Powerful microscopes that utilize highly reflective mirrors increase our ability to see farther into the reaches of space. This technology is a long way from the kind first utilized by Gallileo Galilei to observe the phases of Venus. Today’s technology is able to observe galaxies and other astronomical phenomena.
Such high powered mirrors would be in extremely short supply if not for advances in manufacturing that allowed for reduced material usage.
PVD Thermal Evaporation
Glass is fragile under extreme temperatures. If glass were placed in a super-heated chamber it would crack or shatter easily. As a result, precise controls are used to lower the temperatures from within the chamber. Metals are first heated until they take a gaseous form, then they are left in the cooling chamber where they settle across the surface of the glass. Silver or titanium metals are commonly used, and both have extremely high burning points.
Ion beam sputter deposition systems accomplish a similar goal, but are used when precision is necessary. Normal sputter deposition coats a surface entirely. Using ion beams, the surface receives a coating applied to a specific area. This improves the density of the coating, and reduces the absorption of light. It also helps reduce any imperfections to the substrate caused by heating. If the substrate is damaged, even in a subtle way, it can reduce the overall quality of the mirror and ruin the astronomer’s perception.
Bio: Denton Vacuum, LLC manufactures devices used in ion beam etching for telescopic mirrors and a host of other applications.
By Start Pac
Does your business depend on sizable machinery to get the job done? If so, they probably feel like a missed blessing a lot of times. When things are going right, these machines go a long way toward helping you get the job done as well as possible. On the other hand, when they’re not working, your entire workday can come to a screeching halt and it may even be a while before it starts getting up and running again.
Fortunately, you can rely on a portable power supply in many of these situations. Did your machine simply run out of juice? Instead of towing it to a power stations or relying on other lackluster workarounds, something like a turbine starting machine or similar option can have your essential devices getting the job done once again in no time.
So don’t worry about those important machines becoming more of a liability than an asset. Instead, invest in technology like the kind mentioned above. That way, the next time your machines need a little extra help, your portable option is right there to get your workday back on track—no real harm done.
When you need power in a remote area or if you have machines or vehicles that require a lot of charging power, head over to Start Pac for the best possible options the market has to offer. Whether you need a portable GPU or some other option, you’ll find all those and more at this customer friendly website.