Vacuum sputtering systems are an outstanding solution for sensitive devices that need a light, but dense coating. Optical coating systems create a dense covering that doesn’t interfere with function. Material is heated inside a chamber at such high temperatures and pressures that it condenses into a diamond-like film that is only micron thick.
Industries that develop semiconductor systems, medical tools and optics have already taken advantage of what this modern technology has to offer. These products are protected from abrasion, heat and pressure, as the coating developed by sputtering is so hard. Magnetron sputtering, ion beam sputtering and reactive sputtering are three types of sputtering methods commonly used for such purposes.
Magnetron sputtering creates an electromagnetic field around the target. Gases such as argon fill the chamber and the product is electrically charged of either an AC or DC current. This sort of ionization catches rogue electrons in the electromagnetic field. Ultimately the density inside the chamber of the vacuum is so great that the particles start to interact with the gasses in ways they wouldn’t under normal circumstances. This creates a load of energized ions that are bombarded onto the target’s surface, creating the strong film coating desired from this process.
Ion beam sputtering has the ability to function without an electromagnetic field. Ions removed from the product interact with electrons from another source with an opposite charge. Neutral atoms are then bombarded on the target substance to either conduct or neutralize it.
Reactive sputtering procedures change how the gasses in the chamber react based on chemical changes. Changing the pressure in the chamber allows the particles to layer on the target material in different ways. This includes the thermal evaporation system.
What’s the difference between a computer and the human brain? According to leading philosopher Daniel Dennett, the answer is: not much. As laid out in his new book “Intuition Pumps and Other Tools for Thinking” and profiled in the New York Times, Dennett sees the mind as a collection of “computerlike information processes” that happen to take place inside a living being instead of a computer processor.
In fact, Dennett has claimed in the past that a computer could, if programmed correctly, mimic all of the functions of a human brain including having consciousness. He believes that thinking that there is more to a person’s consciousness than the workings of the brain is both naive and against the knowledge of science, a view that has put him at odds with some of the leading philosophers of modern times.
Read article at:
When doing boat maintenance, a lot of thought often goes into the marine engine. However, there is a lot that should go into anchor selection as well. The anchor is one of the most important of all marine parts because it can help to keep you and your mates safe. The best idea when selecting an anchor is to actually select more than one anchor and select different kinds of anchors. The reason for this is that the bottom of the water can vary from mud to grass, coral to rock. Also, the size of the boat and wind and water conditions can change continuously. Having more than one anchor can prepare you for any situation.
There are two popular styles of anchors, the fluke and the plow. Small boats used on inland types require a different type of anchor. Fluke anchors are the most popular type. They’re sometimes known as Lightweight or Danforth. These are typically good for smaller boats. The fluke anchor is fairly light and it can hold well in both mud and sand. It has an amazing power-to-weight ratio. However, this type doesn’t hold as well in grassy and rocky surfaces.
Plow anchors have the best overall holding ability regardless of the bottom conditions. They are able to adapt easily to changes in the direction of the wind and current. They don’t tend to stow as easily as fluke anchors do. Plows are often used with heavier powerboats and cruising sailboats.
As stated earlier, the experts agree that for the utmost anchor security, it’s best to carry both styles of anchors onboard. At times, there may be situations that require them to be used at the same time. For example, in a storm one anchor may not have enough holding power to keep your boat secure.
When selecting an anchor for your boat, it’s necessary to consider the size as well as the typical location and weather where you anchor. Things to consider include how long of a time span you typically anchor for and what type of body of water you anchor in. Companies that specialize in marine parts and marine exhaust systems can help you figure out what size anchor your boat requires.
Weight is an important factor to consider, but holding power is by far the most important element. Modern anchors can hold up to an amazing 200 times the anchor’s weight. It’s a good idea to find a strong anchor that will keep your boat safe and sound.
Guest post is provided by Perfprotech, a leading supplier of marine parts, including Mercury outboard parts. Check out their website for more information.
Have you ever wondered why a certain friend takes longer to respond via text than usual? A new study released by Brigham Young University suggests that it could be because they are lying, e Science News reports.
According to the article, when a person is lying via text message, social media, or instant message, they take longer to reply, craft shorter replies, and make more changes than usual.
In an effort to detect online lying, the researchers developed a computer system that had conversations with the respondents. The study found that the responses filled with lies took 10 percent longer to write and were changed more than responses that were truthful.
According to Tom Meservy, BYU professor of information systems, they are beginning to detect signs “given off by individuals that aren’t easily tracked by humans.” He told the paper that eventually they can detect deception in chat-based systems in real time.
The researchers admit that just because someone delays in writing a text message response doesn’t automatically mean they are lying. Meservy tells the paper that they are just starting this research and need to gather more information.
Read more here.
This article was submitted by Samuel Phineas Upham. Samuel Phineas Upham is a writer that writes about Philosophy, Investing and Technology. You may contact him at Samuel Phineas Upham Facebook page.
Every man has his/her fix of a machine. Whether it be the very common laptop or cellular phone, to the more adventurous boats and motorcycles – each one has his own passion. So it is only logical that we take care of the things that we hold important – while the upkeep for some remain very simple, others aren’t as so.
A very common mistake that people usually get into with their boat engines are making false assumptions about their machines. Just because you own it doesn’t mean that you know what’s entirely best for your machine.
Take boat engines for example. It’s not just because its smaller than your usual engine (such as with your car) doesn’t mean that less attention should be paid to it. The same problems you have with your car engine can also arise in your boat engine. Overlooking these problems can cause a flurry of problems, which can lead to partial to total disintegration of your boat motor system.
If you have engine problems, then maybe it’s not just the engine that’s the problem; look into your marine exhaust manifolds too – as they’re vital to your engine expulsion system. A replaced part, without consideration of other parts that may have also been damaged may prove to be still hazardous.
Always remember, that in anything, especially machines, never compromise price for quality. Always go with the genuine. If you have a Mercury boat motor and looking to replace your outboard, then only purchase genuine Mercury Outboards. Remember that different parts are compatible with their very specific brand and models.