Baseball radar guns have been used for around 5 decades now, but before the 1960’s, measuring the speed of a pitch in baseball was a very inexact science. Special rigs were needed for a speed measurement and pitchers were unable to simulate real life playing conditions because of the amount of sensors they had to hit exactly to trigger a measurement. Now the most common radar gun in baseball is the JUGS gun, which is able to measure the fast speeds of top-level pitchers.
When a pitcher in baseball throws a pitch its speed is detected and displayed on a screen. This device, a unit that can be mounted or handheld, measures the speed of an object. Pointing the device and detecting a change in frequency of the returned radar signal caused by the Doppler effect accomplishes this. New laser technology now exists making it possible to measure speed with pulsed lasers.
However, these speed measurement devices aren’t only used in the sport of baseball. They are also a very prominent figure in law enforcement. More specifically, the police speed gun uses the same technology, but instead of striking out batters, it is used to strike down speeders on streets. The average number of drivers given a speeding ticket per day is 112,000, and the average cost of a speeding ticket is $152. Thanks to the radar gun law enforcement $17,024,000 is issued in speeding tickets every day.
For a variety of applications, many industries are using the thermal evaporation system for optical thin films. This commonly used technique requires the use of vacuum sputtering system, a highly sensitive machine that allows for temperatures that match plasma levels of our sun. The high heat, high pressure chambers allow materials such as metal and carbon to melt into a vaporous gas, which is then condensed on a target material in the form of a thin film. Controlling the physical and optical properties of the film deposited is extremely important for quality control.
Knowing how to evaluate the effectiveness of how your sputter deposition system is depositing your films will help you control the outcomes of the procedure. Depending on what equipment you choose to use, you can measure the quality of the thin films deposited on your target material. The most common device used to measure the quality of a sputtering system is a recording spectrophotometer. Spectral measurements can be taken with this device on single coatings and some multilevel coatings to measure the optical properties of the film. This essentially means that those using the tool to measure the quality of a film can analyze how light passes through it.
Although certain tools can be used to measure reflection and transmission data to extract the optical properties of a single layer thin film material, the real world accuracy and precision of measured data is not as clear. Thin films do not display perfect homogeneity which can cause difficulty in analyzing results.